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灰铸铁和球墨铸铁凝固过程中的几个要点问题!
点击数:1722     发表日期:2017/4/4

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HUIZHUTIE、QIUMOZHUTIEDENINGGUGUOCHENGBAOKUO:CHUSHENGXIANG(AOSHITI、SHIMO)DEXICHU,GONGJINGZHUANBIANHESHENGYUCANYEDENINGGU。

GONGJINGZHUANBIANDEMOQI,GONGJINGJINGLIYUGONGJINGJINGLIZHIJIAN、GONGJINGJINGLIYUCHUSHENGAOSHITIZHIJINGZHIJIANHUXIANGXIANJIE,SHENGYUDEDIRONGDIANCANYECHUYUJINGLIZHIJIANDEJINGJIEBUWEI,ZUIHOUNINGGU。ZHEIZHONGCANYEZAIZHUTIEZHONGSUOZHANDETIJIFENSHUSUIRANHENXIAO,DANSHI,QIZHONGFUJILEDUOZHONGPIANXIYUANSUHEJIAZAWU,TADENINGGUZHUANGTAIKEYISHIZHUTIEJIANZHONGCHANSHENGDUOZHONGJINGJIEQUEXIAN,RULINGONGJING、JINGJIETANHUAWU、JINGJIEFEIJINSHUJIAZAWU、JIXINGSHIMO、JINGJIANSUOSONGDENG,DUIZHUJIANZHILIANGDEYINGXIANGHENDA。SHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONGYINGXIANGSHENGYUCANYEXINGZHIDEYINSUYEHENDUO,ZHURU:ZHUTIEHUAXUECHENGFENDEXUANDING,RONGLIANYONGGEZHONGYUANCAILIAODEZHILIANG,RONGLIANGUOCHENGDEKONGZHI,TIEYEDEHOUCHULIGONGYIDENGDENG。YINCI,YAOTAOLUNSHENGYUCANYEDENINGGU,JUEBUSHIYILIANGGEDUANLUOSUONENGSHUODEQINGCHUDE,ZHEILIZHINENGZANQIEANXIABUSHUOLE。

DAOMUQIANWEIZHI,WOMENDUIZHUTIENINGGUGUOCHENGDERENSHIRENGRANSHIBUGOUCHONGFENDE,HENYOUBIYAOJINYIBUDETANSUOHEYANJIU。

一、铸铁凝固过程中的生核

众博棋牌 ZHUTIESHIYIZHONGTANHANLIANGBIJIAOGAODEFe-CHEJIN,CHUTANYIWAI,HAIHANYOUDUOZHONGQITAHEJINYUANSU。YIBANDIHEJINZHUTIEZHONGDETAN,KEYIYISHIMOHUOFe3CDEXINGTAIXICHU。

GAOWENDETIEYEZHONG,SHIMODEZIYOUNENGBIFe3CDIDEDUO,JIAOYIYUZHIJIEZITIEYEZHONGXICHU。DANGRAN,ZHUTIEZHONGDETANYEKEZIGUTAIDEAOSHITIZHONGTUORONGXICHU。CONGRELIXUEFANGMIANDEFENXIKANLAI,‘Fe-SHIMO’XIERYUANXIANGTUSHIWENDINGDEPINGHENGZHUANGTAI,SUOYICHENGZHIWEIFe-CHEJINDEWENDINGXI。XIANGDUIERYAN,Fe-Fe3CERYUANXIANGTUJIUSHIFe-CHEJINDEJIEWENDINGXI。

众博棋牌 YAOLEJIEZHUTIEDENINGGUGUOCHENG,DANGRANYAOCANZHAOFe-CHEJINXIANGTU。TONGCHANGWOMENKANDAODESHUJIZHONG,Fe-CERYUANHEJINXIANGTU,YIBANDOUYONGXUXIANBIAOSHIWENDINGXI(Fe-SHIMO),SHIXIANBIAOSHIJIEWENDINGXI(Fe-Fe3C)。JINNIANLAI,YOURENTICHU:Fe-CHEJINXIANGTUZHONG,YONGSHIXIANBIAOSHIWENDINGXI(Fe-SHIMO)、YONGXUXIANBIAOSHIJIEWENDINGXI(Fe-Fe3C),KENENGGENGWEITIEQIE。

ZHEIPIANDUANWEN,ZHISHEJICHANGYONGDEHUIZHUTIEHEQIUMOZHUTIEDENINGGU,ZUIGUANXINDESHISHIMODEXICHU,XIWANGZHUTIEZAININGGUGUOCHENGZHONGBUXICHUFe3C,SUOYITU1ZHONGYISHIXIANBIAOSHIWENDINGXI。

图1 简略的Fe-C合金相图(凝固部分)

众博棋牌 JUNYUNDEYEXIANGZHONGJIEJINGXICHUGUXIANG(JUNZHISHENGHE),JINGHEDEXINGCHENGXUYAOHENDADEBIAOMIANNENG。DUICHUNJINSHUERYAN,ZAIJINSHUYEZHONGJUNZHISHENGHE,YIBANDOUXUYAOJIANGQIGUOLENGDAOQIRONGDIAN100℃YIXIA。YIZHEIZHONGSHENGHEFANGSHIJIEJING、NINGGU,ZAISHIYANSHIZHONGYEXUNENGGOUZUODAO,ZAISHENGCHANTIAOJIANXIA,BUKENENGSHIXIANZHEIZHONGJIEJING、NINGGUDEJIZHI。

众博棋牌 SHIJISHANG,GEZHONGZHUZAOHEJINDEJIEJING、NINGGUGUOCHENG,DOUQISHIYUYIZHIJINGHE。YIBANSHUOLAI,RUGUOJINGHEDEJINGGEYUNINGGUTIJINGGEDESHIPEIXINGHAO,HEJINYEZAIHENXIAODEGUOLENGDUXIAJIUKEYIKAISHIJIEJING、NINGGU。

1、灰铸铁、球墨铸铁中硅的作用

单纯的Fe-C合金,图1中涉及的一些临界点的温度、碳含量见表1。

在平衡条件下,稳定系的共晶温度TEG(1153℃),只比介稳定系的共晶温度TEC(1147℃)高6℃。铸铁的凝固过程中,冷却速率略高一点、过冷度略大一点,就会按介稳定系转变。实际生产条件下,铸铁凝固时冷却速率都比较高、过冷度较大,如果是单纯的Fe-C合金,很容易出现白口。对于生产灰铸铁和球墨铸铁铸件而言,凝固过程中碳不能以Fe3C的形态析出,必须使其按稳定系转变,因而,加入合金元素,扩大TEG和TEC之间的温度差,是至关重要的。

Fe-CHEJINZHONGJIARUGUI,KEYITIGAOWENDINGXIDEGONGJINGWENDU,BUGUOZHEIZHONGZUOYONGBUTAIMINGXIAN,DANSHI,GUIQUEKEYISHIJIEWENDINGXIDEGONGJINGWENDUXIANZHUJIANGDI,CONGERKUODATEGHETECZHIJIANDEWENDUCHA。GUIDEZHEIZHONGZUOYONGCANJIAN

 

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